Today is Monday, Jan. 13, the 13th day of 2014. There are 352 days left in the year.
Highlights in history on this date:
1559 - Coronation of Elizabeth I of England.
1794 - U. S. President George Washington approves a measure adding two stars and two stripes to the American flag, following the admission of Vermont and Kentucky to the union.
1813 - British fleet blockades Chesapeake and Delaware bays in United States during the War of 1812.
1822 - Liberal Constitution is adopted in Greece.
1849 - Sikhs are defeated at Chillianwalla in India, but British suffer heavy casualties.
1893 - Britain's Independent Labor Party, a precursor to the current Labor Party, meets for the first time.
1898 - Emile Zola publishes the manifesto 'J'accuse,' an attack on the anti-Semitism in France that sent Jewish officer Alfred Dreyfus to prison.
1915 - South African troops occupy Swakopmund in German South-West Africa; Earthquake in central Italy kills 30,000 people.
1935 - Saar votes to return to Germany after being administered by France under League of Nations supervision.
1945 - Soviet forces begin offensive in Silesia, Germany, now mostly part of Poland, in World War II.
1959 - Belgium grants reforms in Belgian Congo following disturbances.
1963 - West African Republic of Togo's President Sylvanus Olympio is murdered by Sgt. Gnassingbe Eyadema in a military coup.
1966 - Robert C. Weaver becomes the first black Cabinet member as he is appointed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development by U. S. President Lyndon Johnson.
1967 - Gnassingbe Eyadema, now a lieutenant colonel, seizes power in Togo in a bloodless coup.
1972 - A group of junior officers overthrows civilian government of Ghana in West Africa.
1982 - An Air Florida 737 crashes into a bridge after takeoff and falls into the Potomac River, killing 78 people.
1987 - An employee of Dupont Plaza Hotel in San Juan, Puerto Rico, is charged with setting a New Year's Eve fire that killed 96 people and injured more than 140 others.
1988 - Taiwanese President Chiang Ching-Kuo dies of heart attack at age 77.
1990 - Salvadoran President Alfredo Cristiani announces the arrest of four officers and four soldiers in slayings of six Jesuit priests; Douglas Wilder of Virginia becomes the nation's first elected black governor as he takes the oath of office in Richmond, Virginia.
1991 - Lithuanian television station in Kaunas is seized by Soviet paratroopers in brutal assault that leaves 14 people dead.
1992 - Serial killer Jeffrey L. Dahmer pleads guilty but insane to 15 mutilation killings in Milwaukee, United States. He is killed by a fellow prisoner in 1994; Japan apologizes for forcing tens of thousands of Korean women to serve as sex slaves for Japanese soldiers during World War II.
1993 - Former East German leader Erich Honecker flies to Chile as a free man after his trial for manslaughter ends because of his ill health. He dies a year later.
1994 - Italian Premier Carlo Ciampi resigns, opening the way for parliamentary elections that oust the scandal-scarred parties that have dominated Italy for five decades.
1995 - A fast moving passenger train rams into a stationary train in Bangladesh, killing 39 people.
1997 - Two letter bombs sent to the U. N. bureau of an Arab-language newspaper force the evacuation of part of U. N. headquarters, hours after a third letter bomb explodes at the newspaper's London offices.
1998 - Mexican army troops are called in to arrest a police unit in Chiapas state that shot and killed an indigenous woman in a riot two days earlier.
1999 - The chief of Brazil's Central Bank, Gustavo Franco, unexpectedly resigns and his successor devalues the currency by 8 percent, roiling world financial markets.
2000 - Microsoft chairman Bill Gates promotes company president Steve Ballmer to chief executive officer.
2001 - In a rare disclosure, China says it has punished 242 organizers of the Falun Gong spiritual movement and sent an undisclosed number of followers to labor camps during an 18-month-old crackdown.
2003 - Ivory Coast's two western rebel groups, the Movement for Justice and Peace and the Ivorian Popular Movement of the Greater West, sign a truce with the government and agree to participate in peace talks.
2005 - The son of former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher pleads guilty to helping bankroll a botched coup plot in Equatorial Guinea in a plea bargain that allows him to escape prison and rejoin his family in the United States.
2006 - Villagers dig through the rubble of homes destroyed in a pre-dawn airstrike that doctors say killed at least 17 people in a remote Pakistani tribal area — the second deadly strike in a week near the Afghan border.
2007 - A military tribunal in Italy convicts 10 former members of the Nazi SS in the 1944 slaughter of more than 700 people near Bologna — the worst civilian massacre in Italy during World War II. The 10 receive life sentences for murder, while seven others are acquitted.
2008 - China's government reports that the country has closed more than 11,000 small coal mines as part of a two-year-old safety crackdown aimed at stemming the industry's high death toll.
2009 - After a two-year deployment in Somalia, Ethiopia hands over security duties to a Somali force.
2010 - North Korea's military warns that it will retaliate against South Korea if Seoul does not stop activists from launching propaganda leaflets across their divided border.
2011 - The worst floods in recent memory strike mountain towns north of Rio de Janeiro where at least people are killed when torrential rains unleash mudslides in the pre-dawn hours burying Brazilians alive as they slept.
2012 — Ratings agency Standard & Poor's deals a setback to Europe's ability to fight off a worsening debt crisis by downgrading the government debt of France, Italy, Spain and Austria. But it keeps Germany's at the coveted AAA level.
2013 — A Cairo appeals court overturns Hosni Mubarak's life sentence and orders a retrial of the former Egyptian president for failing to prevent the killing of hundreds of protesters during the 2001 uprising that toppled his regime.
Antoinette Bourignon, Flemish mystic (1616-1680); Prosper Jolyot de Crebillion, French dramatist (1674-1762); Pietro Metastasic, Italian poet (1698-1782); Charles Nelson Reilly, U. S actor (1931-2007); Richard Moll, U. S. actor (1943--); Kevin Anderson, U. S. actor (1960--); Julia Louis-Dreyfus, U. S. actress (1961--); Orlando Bloom, British actor (1977--).
Thought for Today:
If all mankind minus one, were of one opinion, and only one person were of the contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind — John Stuart Mill, English philosopher (1806-1873).