CHONGQING, China (AP) — Determined to learn their way out of the Great Recession — or eager to rise above the deprivation of developing lands — unprecedented millions of people have enrolled in colleges and universities around the world in the past five years.

What they're finding is an educational landscape turning upside down.

In the United States — where top schools have long championed a liberal style of learning and broad education before specialization — higher education's focus is shifting to getting students that first job in a still-shaky economy. Tuition is so high and the lingering economic distress so great that an education not directly tied to an occupation is increasingly seen as a luxury.

Elsewhere in the world, there is a growing emphasis on broader learning as an economic necessity.

Advocates hear employers demanding the "soft skills" — communication, critical thinking, and working with diverse groups — that broad-based learning more effectively instills. They want to graduate job-creators, not just job-fillers. They think the biggest innovations come from graduates who are well-rounded — from empathetic engineers, say, or tech-savvy anthropologists.

In Europe, where for centuries students have jumped straight into specialized fields and studied little else, recent changes have pushed back specialization, making more room for general education. In Africa and the Middle East, experiments are moving away from a relentlessly narrow education tradition. And on a much bigger scale, China is breaking down the rigid disciplinary walls that have long characterized its higher education system.

All of this is happening in the shadow of the Great Recession, which began in late 2007 with the near-collapse of the global financial system, depressing economies and employment worldwide. Today, some countries are recovering, but all are coming to grips with a world altered by hard times.

Higher education is widely seen — both by nations and individuals — as the way to prosperity.

Over roughly the last half-decade, according to UNESCO, enrollment in colleges and universities rose one-third in China and almost two-thirds in Saudi Arabia, nearly doubled in Pakistan, tripled in Uganda, and surged by 3 million — 18 percent — in the United States. In 2001, global enrollment first passed 100 million; a decade later, the estimated figure was 182 million.

But what kind of education will best drive economic growth?

When foreign delegations visit American campuses these days, they increasingly skip the usual research universities to scope out liberal arts colleges such as Amherst and Williams, says Patti McGill Peterson of the American Council on Education.

They're seeking the "magic" that helped launch companies like Apple and Google. China, in particular, is recruiting disheartened American academics and putting them to work.

There's "a weird symmetry" at work in the educational world, says Columbia University professor Andrew Delbanco, author of "College: What it Was, Is, and Should Be."

As people in the United States "talk less and less about the value of liberal education," he says, "our so-called economic competitors talk about it more and more."

____

On the outskirts of Chongqing, a sprawling megalopolis of 29 million in southwest China, stand a pair of college campuses — one representing education's past in the world's most populous country, and the other, perhaps, its future.

In its mission and dreary name, the College of Mobile Telecommunications is typical of China's hundreds of Soviet-era universities: rote learning, hyper-specialization and a lock-step course of study for all.

On a hill above it, surrounding a secluded courtyard, stands a new experiment, something very different — Yuanjing Academy. Here, college students take a broad array of subjects their first year, in small classes, learning to do things like argue about literature and play the guitar.

On a recent sunny afternoon, in the checkered shadow of a traditional Buddhist "Bodhi" tree of wisdom on campus, a visiting Dutch academic named Hans Adriaansens sat conversing with Yuanjing students about their ambitions, work and daily worries.

Adriaansens is an adviser to the school, and his journey here is a kind of microcosm of the global movement.

Early in his career, he studied at American campuses including Harvard and Smith College, falling in love with liberal arts learning. Later, he struggled for decades to bring the model to Europe, where students historically have been channeled into specialties as early as age 12.

"When I started, everybody was against it, even at my own university," he says.

That's changed. In recent years, he's helped leading Dutch universities install liberal arts colleges within their campuses. Across Europe, schools have opened space during the first years for broader learning, delaying specialization.

"The Europeans won't say this, but it's kind of Americanizing their system," says Philip Altbach, a Boston College expert on international higher education.

Singapore and Hong Kong have made similar changes.

The prophet of this movement, quoted often by Adriaansens and others, is Steve Jobs, the late co-founder of Apple. Jobs called the marriage of liberal arts, humanities and technology the secret to Apple products "that make our hearts sing." Far from burying interest in broader learning, advocates say, Europe's economic malaise has increased interest in nurturing innovative thinkers.

While the old Soviet system was a byword for rigid specialization, elite St. Petersburg State University in Russia recently opened its first liberal arts faculty. Jonathan Becker, the vice president for international affairs at Bard College in New York who has worked in Europe for decades, says it's no accident that effort has been led by a former Russian finance minister.

"They realize," Becker says, that "narrow boundaries of disciplines are not the answer to modern world problems."

There are similar projects in Poland, Slovakia and elsewhere. Even in Germany, which invented the rigid disciplinary model, a first-of-its-kind four-year liberal arts college was being formally inaugurated Monday at the University of Freiburg. The reasoning is both economic and political, especially in Eastern Europe.

"There's memory of the problems of following a rigorous ideology, and a belief that following a rigorous interdisciplinary program is a way of overcoming that legacy," Becker says.

Now, Adriaansens has moved to the movement's biggest stage yet: China.

"It's new to them but, to my surprise, it's going much faster than it went in my country," he says.

In its once tightly planned economy, China's universities churned out graduates for specific lines of work. Students declared their academic intentions as early as 10th grade. Universities often were overseen by a national ministry or trade agency. Their names say it all: Chongqing Nanfang Translators College, Nanjing Audit University, North China Electric Power University.

Peng Hongbin excelled in that system, studying at a prestigious university and later getting rich in the flooring business. But he doesn't credit his education: Under the rote learning style he never learned to speak up, and he overcame his shyness only later, in the business world.

"China does not teach you how to communicate," says Peng, who in 2007 bought the telecommunications college when it went private and, five years later, founded Yuanjing on the hill above it.

"For a country to innovate, to be creative, it needs imagination, not a knowledge and know-how from a specific field of study," he says.

His academy picks 150 students from the freshman class of 5,000 at the telecommunications college, which also is undergoing changes, adding clubs, sports, community service and art appreciation.

Peng is not alone in his quest; China's leaders have taken steps in the same direction. They want China to invent the next iPad, not build the last one.

The government moved toward a broader curriculum in 1995, offering electives. Recently, the movement has accelerated and spread across China's big public universities. Hangzhou's Zhejiang University in eastern China, for example, has reduced the number of majors from more than 200 to seven general directions.

There is no suggestion that the Chinese system yet resembles the traditional American one, or will soon.

"The 12 years of education has not given our students the habit of thinking," says Bai Fengshan, who is leading a new liberal arts curriculum at prestigious Tsinghua University, a public school traditionally known for technology and engineering. "They simply take whatever is given. They can tell when what's given is bad, but they don't know why."

Students "lack the ability to be critical," he says, "which is different from the ability to criticize."

Despite the obstacles, Bai is committed to the transition.

"When a person leaves the university, he or she should be a whole person," he says.

Yuanjing students make much the same point.

"We are adults," says Zhang Panyu, an 18-year-old student whose reading of "Jane Eyre" helped him navigate his own first romance. "We need to know something about everything,"

___

The University of Farmers is not like Yale or Yuanjing. In fact, it's not officially a university, at all.

U of F is a corporate training operation of America's Farmers Insurance, and its students are agents and adjusters. It has campuses in California and at a suburban office park beside the Grand Rapids airport in Michigan.

The University of Farmers is not a place where the works of the great philosophers are discussed; it is a place where people learn things that will help them do their jobs and jobs they hope to have some day. And in that, it reflects a major shift the Great Recession accelerated in American higher education.

Michael Hoffman, 29, started working at Farmers two years ago but hit a ceiling without a degree. He's one of thousands of employees Farmers is helping pursue their diplomas. In Michigan, many shuttle between the Farmers training program and nearby Davenport University, which awards the degrees.

Farmers will support degrees in a range of fields, and emphasizes that specialized business degrees aren't required to work there. But virtually all choose business. Some, including Hoffman, are in a new management program that focuses them even more narrowly: They are essentially majoring in insurance.

"I want what's going to be specifically oriented to my career and my career goals," says Hoffman, explaining a curriculum focused on things like underwriting regulation, ethics and licensing. And with an infant at home, "Really, that's all I have time for."

Davenport's curriculum injects broad-based skill building in every course, says an associate dean at the school, Frank Novakowski. But he also calls Davenport pragmatic, noting Farmers is halfway through hiring 1,600 new workers here.

"We don't have degrees that are just there for the fun of it or because Professor Wonderful started it 30 years ago," he says. "People are getting really serious about 'what am I getting an education for, and what am I going to do after?' And if the kids aren't asking, their parents are."

Getting a job has always driven Americans to college and affected what they study, says Arthur Levine, a researcher who now leads the New Jersey-based Woodrow Wilson Foundation, which supports leadership development in education and teaching. Levine has tracked students' attitudes toward college since the 1960s and takes an even longer view than that. Even the medieval theologians reading Latin at the first universities wanted secure work in the church, he notes.

Recently, though, he has identified a substantial shift. In the 1970s, fewer than half of U. S. college students felt increasing earnings was the chief benefit of college. Now, about two-thirds do.

A national survey of U. S. college freshmen shows a jump in such attitudes starting in 2007, when the economy turned. About three-quarters of freshmen want colleges to provide more specialized career training.

"There's just been a lot more emphasis in the kitchen-table conversations about choosing a college and choosing a major that is a clear path to a good-paying job," says Richard Ekman, president of America's Council of Independent Colleges. "That has shown up in the pattern of majors and in the choice of institutions."

Tuition list prices at American four-year colleges rose 27 percent above inflation over the last five years. Students' combined debt now exceeds $1 trillion by some estimates. They want specialized, job-focused offerings. And colleges have obliged:

—Over the last decade, the number of academic subjects tracked by the U. S. government has expanded about one-fifth, with 354 new and increasingly specialized subjects identified since 2000. Drexel University in Philadelphia has added 20 majors in the last decade, including game and art production, culinary science and property management.

—The fastest-growing majors in the United States are mostly tied narrowly to professions, areas like homeland security, law enforcement and firefighting (up 76 percent over the last decade); health professions (up 60 percent) and parks, recreation, leisure and fitness studies (up 90 percent). The largest undergraduate major by far is business, accounting for nearly one-quarter of U. S. degrees. The field is fracturing further into sub-fields like hospitality management and insurance.

The share of four-year degrees in the general arts and sciences has held fairly constant — some fields, like psychology, have even grown. But overall, literature, philosophy and other humanities have suffered. Harvard reported this month that one-third fewer students enter planning to major in the humanities than in 2006.

And most higher education growth is happening outside traditional four-year colleges. From 2006 to 2010, enrollment at for-profit colleges — which typically focus on vocational education — grew five times faster than college enrollment overall.

Higher education's fastest-growing segment is even more narrowly focused: certificates. These bite-sized educational credentials in narrow occupational fields — offered by community colleges, industry groups and companies — are available for everything from diesel mechanics to specific IT skills. According to the Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce in Washington, D. C., certificates have more than tripled in roughly 15 years in the U. S., with more than 1 million awarded in 2010.

American politicians are encouraging the trend of practicality in higher education. The governors of Florida and North Carolina, for example, have pushed to shift state funding away from liberal arts subjects to programs that lead more directly to jobs.

On average, people with career-focused degrees do have higher earnings and lower unemployment — at least out of the gate, according to research by the Georgetown center. Certificates also boost earnings.

It's been harder to pin down how majors affect careers over the long-term.

Employers who complained that millions of jobs were unfilled during the Great Recession because too few graduates had the necessary technical skills also lament that students aren't well-rounded enough — lacking an ability to communicate and continue to learn. A recent employer survey by the Association of American Colleges and Universities found 93 percent reported that capacities to think critically, communicate clearly and solve complex problems were more important than an undergraduate major.

University of Michigan education professor Janet Lawrence says employers can't resist hiring graduates with focused training whom they can put straight to work. Then their new hires don't always work well in teams or grow into a job.

"They're getting technically skilled accountants," she says, "but they don't know what they don't know."

___

Four thousand miles east of Michigan, high in a verdant stretch of Morocco's remote Middle Atlas mountains, Driss Ouaouicha is trying to persuade his skeptical country that broader learning isn't a luxury. It's an economic necessity.

Ouaouicha is president of the private Al-Akhawayn (Two Brothers) University, started two decades ago with support from the kings of Morocco and Saudi Arabia.

Morocco's public universities follow the traditional French model of early and strict separation of subjects. Al-Akhawayn follows the model Ouaouicha first encountered as a student at tiny St. John's College in New Mexico, which offers a "great books" curriculum based on the foundations of Western literature.

Outside the hard sciences and some elite specialty programs, higher education in Morocco clearly isn't working. Here, and across the Middle East, unemployment is higher for those with college degrees than for those without. Graduates blame the government for sending too many into narrow programs not suited for the job market and not offering enough spots in science.

While Al-Akhawayn is a success (virtually all the university's recent graduates are working or in graduate school), it is not necessarily a template for Moroccan education. Its roughly $11,000 annual cost puts the school out of reach for almost everyone in a developing country where public universities are free.

"We don't have the financial means" to replicate Al-Akhawayn, says Lahcen Daoudi, Morocco's minister of higher education, who sits on Al-Akhawayn's board.

Still, Ouaouicha is trying to persuade cash-strapped educators around the Middle East that they can emulate some of what works here and turn a culture of government dependency into an entrepreneurial one.

His graduates "learn the experience of teamwork and learning," Ouaouicha says. "They learn there are different ways ... to do things."

He sees some progress. The Moroccan system has implemented a small "common core" of general education classes, he says. And he is encouraged by similar college experiments in places like Lebanon and Saudi Arabia.

In many of the world's worst-off countries, a tug-of-war goes on over what kind of educational system they should build. Educators who say a broad education might be the best path in the long run must contend with others who say technical skills are needed to bring their economies closer to first-world levels, especially in view of decades of underinvestment in practical training.

India's National Skills Development Mission, a public-private partnership that is one of the country's principal development efforts, wants to use for-profit vocational institutions to give 500 million people tangible job skills by 2022.

Yet while employers in India say they're desperate for skilled workers, they're not looking for one-task robots.

"We're not asking you to train plumbers," Manish Sabharwal, chairman of TeamLease, a giant temporary staffing company, told education leaders at a conference in Delhi last November. "We're asking you for curious, confident risk-takers."

Rwanda is focused on agriculture, tourism and information technology. With its history of genocide, it needs leaders who've wrestled with subjects like history, politics and justice. But its 12 million people, crammed into a mountainous country roughly the size of Maryland, also desperately need jobs.

"There's a price to be paid if you let education become too focused and pragmatic," says Bruce Krogh, an electrical engineer at Pennsylvania's Carnegie Mellon University who currently is working in Rwanda. But, he adds, "It's a different game when you're trying to bootstrap an economy."

Says Francisco Marmolejo, a Mexican educator and now the World Bank's point person for higher education: "This is the dilemma all higher education institutions face around the world. Many times, the discourse is about getting a job, rather than creating a job."

In fact, he and others say, countries will need both broad thinking across subjects and specialized expertise. And so will individuals.

"There is an argument for getting specific training in the active field you want," says Marc Tucker, president and CEO of the Washington, D. C.-based National Center on Education and the Economy, a non-profit organization that looks at the implications of changes in the international economy for American education. "But if your thinking stops there, you are going to be outcompeted in another five or six or 10 years by somebody who did that and also got a liberal education."

Adriaansens believes the broad-based approach will eventually win the global argument.

"Who can tell what kind of job will exist four years from now for these students?" he asks.

A narrow degree may misfire, he says, but a broader degree gives graduates the tools to reinvent themselves.

"You can build a high mountain on a very broad base," he says.

___

Pope reported from Michigan. AP reporter Paul Schemm contributed reporting from Rabat and Ifrane, Morocco, and news researcher Judith Ausuebel contributed from New York

Online:

Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce: http://cew.georgetown.edu/

Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences report: http://www.humanitiescommission.org/

Al-Akhawayn University: http://www.aui.ma/en/

___

Follow Justin Pope at http://www.twitter.com/JustinPopeAP and Didi Tang at http://www.twitter.com/tangdidi

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  2. Without limiting clause 11.1, by posting or submitting Contributed Material , you are giving the Publisher, and its affiliates, agents and third party contractors the right to display or publish such Contributed Material on the Site and its affiliated publications (either in the form submitted or in the form of a derivative or adapted work), to store such content, and to distribute such content and use such content for promotional and marketing purposes. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, with respect to any video submissions to the Publisher made by you from time to time, you understand and agree that (unless you and the Publisher agree otherwise) the Publisher may, or may permit users to compile, re‑edit, adapt or modify your video submission, or create derivative works therefrom, either on a stand‑alone basis or in combination with other video submissions, and (unless you and the Publisher agree otherwise) you shall have no rights with respect thereto and the Publisher or our licensees shall be free to display and publish the same (as so compiled, re‑edited, adapted, modified or derived) for any period.

  3. You shall be solely responsible for your own Contributed Material and the consequences of posting or publishing the Contributed Material. Without limiting clause 11.3, in connection with each of your Contributed Materials, you affirm, represent, and/or warrant that: (I) you own or have the necessary licenses, rights, consents, and permissions to use and authorize the Publisher to use all patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright or other intellectual property or proprietary rights in and to any and all such Contributed Material to enable inclusion and use of such Contributed Material in the manner contemplated by the Publisher and these Terms and Conditions; and (II) you have the written consent, release, and/or permission of each and every identifiable individual person in such Contributed Material to use the name or likeness of each and every such identifiable individual person to enable inclusion and use of such Contributed Material in the manner contemplated by the Publisher and these Terms and Conditions; and (III) the Contributed Materials and their use do not infringe any intellectual property rights or other rights of any person. In furtherance of the foregoing, you agree that you will not submit Material that is copyrighted, protected by trade secret or otherwise subject to third party proprietary rights, including privacy and publicity rights, unless you are the owner of such rights or have permission from their rightful owner to post the material and to grant the Publisher all of the rights granted herein. Publisher reserves the right to remove or not publish Contributed Material without prior notice. You understand that when you submit Material in any form to the Publisher, the Publisher may authorize such content to be distributed or syndicated to or published on other related branded environments.

  4. You may download and view or print a copy of Material on this Site for personal, non‑commercial use provided you do not modify the Material in any way (including any copyright notice). All rights not expressly granted under these terms of use are reserved by the Publisher. Unless expressly stated otherwise, you are not permitted to copy, or republish anything you find on the Site without the copyright or trademark owners' permission.

  5. All trade marks and logos that appear on the Site are owned by either the Publisher or its related bodies corporate or their licensors. Other trademarks may be displayed on the Site from time to time. These may belong to third parties. Nothing displayed on the Site should be construed as granting any license or right of use of any logo, trademark or masthead displayed on the Site, without the express written permission of the relevant owner.

Third party websites, content links, advertising and activities

  1. The Site may feature or display links and pointers to websites operated by third parties on the Site. Such websites do not form part of the Site and are not under the Publisher's control. The Publisher does not accept any responsibility in connection with any such website. If you link to any such websites, you leave the Site entirely at your own risk. The appearance of those links on this site does not indicate any relationship between the Publisher and that third party or any endorsement by the Publisher of that third party, its site or the products or services which it is advertising on this Site. The Site may include third party content which is subject to that third party's terms and conditions of use. Nothing on the Site should be construed as granting any license or right for you to use that content. You must not link to the Site from any other website (or otherwise authorize any other person to link from a third party website to the Site) without the Publisher's prior written consent.

  2. The Site may feature or display third party advertising. By featuring or displaying such advertising, the Publisher does not in any way represent that the Publisher recommends or endorses the relevant advertiser, its products or services. If you contact a third party using functionality provided on the Site, including via e‑mail, the Publisher does not accept any responsibility for any communications or transactions between you and the relevant third party.

  3. From time to time, the Publisher may promote, advertise, or sponsor functions, events, offers, competitions or other activities that may be conducted offline and may be conducted by third parties. These activities may be subject to separate terms and conditions. You participate in any such activities entirely at your own risk. The Publisher does not accept any responsibility in connection with your participation in activities conducted by any third party.

Liability and Idemnity

  1. To the extent permitted by law, you use the Site at your sole risk. The Publisher does not warrant that the Site will be uninterrupted or error‑free. There may be delays, omissions, interruptions, and inaccuracies in the news, information or other Material available through the Site. To the extent permitted by law the Publisher excludes all warranties, representations, conditions and guarantees, whether express, implied or statutory, including, without limitation, those of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the Site or any Materials or goods that are available or sold through the Site. The Publisher does not exclude any statutory or implied warranty, condition or guarantee that it is prohibited by law to exclude under applicable law of any jurisdiction. The Publisher does not make any representations, nor does the Publisher endorse the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other material or database supplied, uploaded or distributed on the Site or available through links on the Site. The Publisher reserves the right to correct any errors or omissions on the Site. Although the Publisher intends to take reasonable steps to prevent the introduction of viruses, worms, ‘trojan horses' or other destructive material to the Site, the Publisher does not guarantee or warrant that the Site or Material that may be downloaded from the Site do not contain such destructive features. To the extent permitted by law, the Publisher is not liable for any loss, damage or harm attributable to such features. If you rely on the Site and any Material available through the Site you do so solely at your own risk. The Publisher does not warrant the accuracy of the Material on the Site, and the Material is provided to you “as is” and on an “as available” basis and on the condition that you undertake all responsibility for assessing the accuracy of the Material and rely on it at your own risk. You recognize that the Site may contain various combinations of text, images, audiovisual productions, opinions, statements, facts, articles, market data, stock quotes or other information created by the Publisher or by third parties. Such Material, including market data, is for your reference only and should not be relied upon by you for tax or investment advice and it does not advocate the purchase or sale of any security or investment.

  2. The Publisher does not necessarily hold the opinions expressed by Material contributors. Opinions and other statements expressed by Users and third parties (e.g., bloggers) are theirs alone, not opinions of the Publisher. Material created by third parties is the sole responsibility of the third parties and its accuracy and completeness are not endorsed or guaranteed. You acknowledge that by providing you with the ability to view and distribute Material through the Site, the Publisher is not undertaking any obligation or liability relating to the Material. The Publisher and its affiliates, successors, assigns, employees, agents, directors, officers and shareholders do not undertake or assume any duty to monitor the Site for inappropriate or unlawful content. To the extent permitted by law, the Publisher and its affiliates, successors, assigns, employees, agents, directors, officers and shareholders assume no responsibility or liability which may arise from the Material thereof, including, but not limited to, claims for defamation, libel, slander, infringement, invasion of privacy and publicity rights, obscenity, pornography, profanity, fraud, or misrepresentation. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Publisher reserves the right to block or remove communications, postings or Materials at any time in its sole discretion.

  3. To the extent permitted by law, the Publisher will have no responsibility or liability in relation to any loss or damage that you incur, including damage to your software or hardware, arising from your use of or access to this Site.

  4. The Publisher does not warrant that functions contained in the Site content, such as hyperlinks, will be uninterrupted or error free, that defects will be corrected or that the Publisher or the server that makes it available, are free of viruses or bugs.

  5. The Publisher may be legally compelled to disclose certain Information. You agree that in the event the Publisher receives a subpoena issued by a court or from a law enforcement or government agency, the Publisher shall comply with such subpoenas without your consent or prior notice to you and may disclose your IP address, username, name, IP location or other information in response thereto.

  6. Subject to clause 30, to the extent permitted by law, the Publisher and its affiliates, and their respective members, directors, officers, managers, employees, shareholders, agents and licensors are not liable for incidental, indirect, consequential, special, punitive, or exemplary loss or damages of any kind, including, without limitation, lost revenues or profits, loss of business, opportunity or goodwill, or loss of data, arising in any way in connection with this Site or Material on the Site, the use of (or inability to use) the Site or Material, or the Conditions, whether in contract, tort (including negligence), in equity, under statue or otherwise, including but not limited to any claim, loss or injury based on errors, omissions, interruptions or other inaccuracies in the Site, or as a result of breach of any warranty or other term or condition of the Conditions. To the extent permitted by law and subject to clause 30, the Publisher's liability shall be limited to the amount you paid, if any, for use of the Site.

  7. You will be responsible for any harm the Publisher suffers as a result of your violation of these Terms and Conditions or any breach by you of your representations and warranties. You agree to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher and its affiliates, and their respective members, directors, officers, managers, employees, shareholders, agents, and licensors, from and against all losses, expenses, damages and costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees, resulting from any violation by you of the Conditions or any breach by you of your representations and warranties thereunder. The Publisher reserves the right to take over the exclusive defense of any claim for which the Publisher is entitled to indemnification under this Section 29. In such event, you shall provide the Publisher with such cooperation as is reasonably requested by the Publisher.

  8. To the extent that the Publisher's liability for breach of any implied or statutory warranty, condition or guarantee, cannot be excluded by law, to the extent permitted by law the Publisher's liability will be limited, at the Publisher's option, to:

    1. in the case of services supplied or offered by the Publisher:

      1. the supply of the services again; or

      2. the payment of the cost of having the services supplied again; and

    2. in the case of goods supplied or offered by the Publisher:

      1. the replacement of the goods or the supply of equivalent goods;

      2. the repair of the goods;

      3. the payment of the cost of having the goods replaced; or

      4. the payment of the cost of having the goods repaired.

  9. If a jurisdiction does not allow the exclusion or limitation of liability in accordance with clause 30 but allows a limitation of a certain maximum extent then liability is limited to that extent.

No reliance, other Users

  1. Except where expressly stated otherwise, Material on the Site is provided as general information only. It is not intended as advice and must not be relied upon as such. You should make your own inquiries and take independent advice tailored to your specific circumstances prior to making any decisions. To the extent permitted by law, the Publisher will not be liable for loss resulting from any action or decision by you in reliance on the Material on the Site.

  2. You acknowledge that the Publisher is not responsible for, and accepts no liability in relation to, any other User's use of, access to or conduct in connection with the Site in any circumstance.

Termination

  1. In the event of termination of your access to the Site you must immediately cease accessing and using the Site and Materials on the Site and (at Publisher's option) return any (hard or electronic) copies of such Materials to the Publisher or destroy any copies within your control or possession. All licences granted by you and all disclaimers, indemnities and exclusion and limitations of liability set out in the Conditions will survive termination.

Severability

  1. If any provision of the Conditions is deemed invalid by a court of competent jurisdiction, the invalidity of such provision shall not affect the validity of the remaining provisions of the Conditions, which shall remain in full force and effect.

No waiver

  1. No waiver of any term of the Conditions shall be deemed a further or continuing waiver of such term or any other term. Any failure to assert any right under the Conditions shall not constitute a waiver of such right.

Affirmation regarding age

  1. By using the Site, you affirm that you are 18 years or over or otherwise possess legal parental or guardian consent.

Applicable Law

  1. These Conditions shall be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the Isle of Man. You consent to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts in the Isle of Man to determine any matter or dispute which arises under the Conditions.

Definitions

  1. In these terms and conditions:

    1. "Material" means text, illustrations, photos, audio, video, or any combination of these or other content, information, data or material.

Publishing Services International Limited Privacy Policy

1. Privacy

The Publisher recognizes the importance of protecting the privacy of its customers. For the purposes of this Privacy Policy, "customers" includes visitors to the Site, subscribers to and users of the Publisher's services, purchasers of its products and advertising customers. This privacy policy is intended to inform you about the personal information that is collected from you when you visit the Site, and in the other circumstances described under the heading "Collection of personal information" below, how this information may be used and disclosed, how you can control the use and disclosure of your information, how your information is protected, and how you can access that information. The Publisher may, from time to time, review and update this Privacy Policy, including taking account of new or amended laws, new technology and/or changes to its operations. This Privacy Policy applies only in respect of the Site. This Privacy Policy does not apply to information collected through any other website (other than by or on behalf of the Publisher in the circumstances described under the heading "Collection of personal information" below) or to the practices of companies that the Publisher does not control. Please note that the Site may contain links to other websites. For example, if you click on an advertisement on the Site and link to another website, then this Privacy Policy will not apply to any information collected on that website. The Publisher is not responsible for the privacy practices of other websites, and the Publisher recommends that you read the privacy policies of each website that you visit. All personal information held by the Publisher will be governed by the most recently updated Privacy Policy.

2. Collection of personal information

The Publisher collects personal information when the Publisher provides its services to you. When you visit and interact with the Site, certain information may be collected automatically, including:

  • your computer's Internet Protocol (IP) address;
  • your browser type and operating system;
  • the web pages you were visiting immediately before and after you came to the Site;
  • activities within community discussions;
  • web pages and advertisements that you view, and links that you click on, within the Site;
  • your bandwidth speed and information about the software programs that are installed on your computer;
  • aggregated data about email click‑through rates and user video viewing;
  • standard server log information; and
  • information collected through HTML cookies, Flash cookies, web beacons, and similar technologies.

The Publisher usually collects personal information directly from you, although sometimes the Publisher may use agents or service providers to do this for the Publisher. The Publisher may also acquire lists from other sources, both from other companies and from other public documents. This may include advertisers, mailing lists, recruitment agencies, contractors and business partners. The Publisher may also access information about you from third‑party sources and platforms (such as social networking sites, databases, online marketing firms, and ad targeting firms), including:

  • if you access third‑party social networking services (such as Facebook Connect or Twitter) through the Site, your username and connection lists for those services;
  • demographic data, such as age range, gender, and interests;
  • advertisement interaction and viewing data, such as ad click‑through rates and information about how many times you viewed a particular ad; and
  • unique identifiers, including mobile device identification numbers, that can identify the physical location of such devices in accordance with applicable law.

Please note that the Site may combine the information that we collect with information that the Publisher may obtain from third‑party sources. The Publisher may collect your personal information when you request or acquire a product or service from the Publisher, register with the Publisher as a member (including user name and password and contact information such as name, email address, postal address, phone number, and mobile number), provide a product or service to the Publisher, complete a survey or questionnaire, enter a competition or event, contribute in a fundraising event, participate in one of the Publisher's services (including blogs, forums, community discussions and other interactive features), search queries conducted on the Site, or when you communicate with the Publisher by e‑mail, telephone, or in writing.

The Publisher usually collects personal information such as your name, address, telephone number, and in some instances, your financial details, including your credit card information, in addition to the other specific types of information described above. The Publisher also collects information about you that is not personal information. For example, the Publisher may collect data relating to your activity on its websites (including IP addresses) via tracking technologies such as cookies, or the Publisher may collect information from you in response to a survey.

As a general rule the Publisher does not collect sensitive information, however it reserves the right to do so. If the Publisher does, it will usually be for the purposes of providing its goods or services and if the law requires the Publisher to, the Publisher will seek your consent to collect it.

If you do not provide the Publisher with information described above, the Publisher may not be able to its services to you.

If, at any time, you provide personal information about someone other than yourself, you warrant that you have that person's consent to provide such information for the purpose specified.

If you are located outside of the Isle of Man, please note that personal information provided by you or otherwise collected as described above will be transferred to the Isle of Man.

3. Use of personal information

The Publisher uses personal information to provide its services (which may include the display of personalised content and advertising) to you, to fulfil administrative functions associated with these services, for example billing, to enter into contracts with you or third parties and for marketing and client relationship purposes. The Publisher also generally uses personal information to report statistics, analyse trends, diagnose problems and target and improve the quality of its products and services. By accessing the Site, you agree that the Publisher may use your personal information for the purposes and by the means described in this Privacy Policy, and you agree that the Publisher may use your mobile number to send you promotions, notifications, or other services. In order to provide readers with free access to content, the Publisher displays advertisements on the Site, many of which are targeted based on information about you. For example, using information collected through cookies, web beacons, and other sources, the Publisher may use demographic data or information about your online activities or interests to display targeted advertising that may be relevant to your preferences. Through this process, advertisers reach Site visitors who are most interested in their products, and you see advertising for products or services in which you may be interested. Third‑party advertisers and advertising platforms also may serve targeted ads on the Site. Please remember that the information practices of third‑party advertisers or platforms collecting data on our Site are not covered by this privacy policy. The Publisher may also use the information that it collects to prevent illegal activities, to enforce the Site's Terms and Conditions, and to otherwise protect its rights and the rights of its users. In addition to the uses identified above, the Publisher may use the information that it collects for any other purposes disclosed to you at the time it collects your information or pursuant to your consent. Where your personal information is contained within an advertisement which the Publisher publishes for you, the Publisher may also use your information for publication of that same advertisement in other media, in accordance with the terms and conditions of the initial publication. The Publisher may also use your personal information to assist the Publisher in improving its products and services and to let you know about goods, services, or promotions which may interest you.

4. Disclosure to and use by Third Parties

The Publisher values your privacy, and shares information about its users only under certain circumstances. The Publisher may share your information with other companies which are related to the Publisher. The Publisher may disclose your information to its service providers and contractors from time to time to help the Publisher to provide and market its goods and services to you. The Publisher may also share your information with third parties who provide prizes for competitions or reader offers. If the Publisher does this, the Publisher generally requires these parties to protect your information in the same way as the Publisher does.

The Publisher will make information about you available to other companies, applications, or people in the circumstances listed below:

  • The Publisher may share aggregated information or information that does not directly identify you with third parties to help the Publisher develop content, services, and advertising that the Publisher hopes you will find of interest. Please note that the Publisher does not share contact information with third parties that advertise on the Site.
  • The Publisher may employ third parties to perform Site‑related services, including database management, maintenance services, analytics, marketing, data processing, and email and text message distribution. These third parties have access to your information only to perform these tasks on the Publisher's behalf.
  • If you choose to engage in public activities on the site, such as posting comments on community message boards, any information you submit can be read, collected, or used by others. Please exercise caution when deciding to disclose any personal information in public activities or submissions.
  • The Publisher may share information about you in the event that the Site is acquired by or merged with another company or a similar corporate transaction takes place. However, the Site will notify you by placing a prominent notice on the Site or sending a notice to the primary email address specified in your account before your information is transferred and becomes subject to a different privacy policy.
  • The Publisher may share information about you to investigate, prevent, or take action regarding illegal activities, suspected fraud, situations involving potential threats to the physical safety or other rights and interests of any person, violations of the Site's Terms and Conditions, or as otherwise required by law.
  • The Publisher may share information about you to respond to subpoenas, search warrants, judicial proceedings, court orders, legal process, or other law enforcement measures, to establish or exercise our legal rights, or to defend against legal claims.
  • In addition to the scenarios identified above, the Publisher may share information about you for any other purposes disclosed to you at the time the Publisher collects your information or pursuant to your consent.

Please note that third parties may independently collect data about you, including your IP address and information about the websites you visit and the links you click, through cookies, clicks on links, or other means when you visit or view ads on the Site.

To customize your experience on the Site and to simplify the Site's registration process, the Publisher provides you with the opportunity to access or interact with third‑party services, such as Facebook and Twitter. When you connect to the Site through these third‑party services, the Publisher may share information about you with these third‑party service providers and they may share data about you with the Publisher. When you allow the Publisher to access your data through a third‑party service to create a Site profile, the Publisher may use this data for several purposes, including:

  • For example, if you connect to the Site via a service with a public friend list, like Twitter, the Publisher may check to see if any people you follow on Twitter are also Site members. If the Publisher finds a match, the Publisher will replicate your Twitter relationship with those members, setting them to be fans, followers, or friends on the Publisher Site.
  • For example, if you connect via a service that has a private contact list (like Google and Yahoo!), the Publisher checks for people in your contacts who are Site members and suggest that you become a fan of these users.
  • When users share content with their friends, the Publisher may use friend lists from third‑party services to create a list of contacts to whom you may choose to send the email message.
  • For example, the Publisher may use friend lists from a third‑party service to create a list of contacts to whom you may choose to send an invitation to view an interactive slideshow.
  • When you are connected via a third‑party service, the Publisher may access certain account information, such as your profile picture, what stories are popular in your network, and what your friends are saying about certain articles or blog posts, in order to enhance and personalize your experience on the Site.

In addition, if you connect to a Facebook account, your experience on the Site may be personalized. For example, you may automatically see what stories are popular in your network, and what your friends are saying about particular stories. Please note that you may disconnect third party accounts at any time.

Please remember that the Publisher does not control the privacy practices of these third‑party services. The Publisher encourages you to read the privacy policies of all third‑party service providers. You can deactivate your account at any time by visiting the preferences page for your profile. When you deactivate your account, your user profile will be disabled, but your public comments will remain on the site. The Site has no responsibility to take down, remove, or edit any of your public activities or any submissions that are a result of your public activities. If you opt out of these technologies, you will continue to see advertising displayed on the Site, but the advertising may not be targeted to your interests. Please remember that the Publisher does not have access to, or control over, advertisers' or service providers' cookies, and the information practices of third parties are not covered by this privacy policy.

5. Use of Aggregate Data

The Publisher may collect and use certain non‑personal information (e.g., the identity of your Internet browser, the type of operating system you use, your IP address and the domain name of your Internet service provider) to optimise its goods and services (which may include the display of personalised content and advertising) including the Publisher's web pages for your computer. The Publisher may use personally identifiable information in aggregate form to improve its goods and services including its web sites and make them more responsive to the needs of its customers. This statistical compilation and analysis of information may also be used by the Publisher or provided to others as a summary report for marketing, advertising or research purposes.

6. Security

The Publisher strives to ensure the security, integrity and privacy of personal information of its customers. The Publisher may hold your information in either electronic or hard copy form. The Publisher uses a variety of physical and electronic security measures including restricting physical access to its offices and firewalls and secure databases to keep personal information secure from misuse, loss or unauthorized use or disclosure. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the Internet can be guaranteed to be totally secure. The Publisher limits access to contact information about you to employees or service providers who the Publisher believes reasonably need to come into contact with that information to provide products or services to you or in order to do their jobs, and subject to section 4 of this Privacy Policy. The Publisher also has adopted commercially reasonable technical, physical, and administrative procedures to help protect information about you from loss, misuse, and alteration. Personal information is destroyed or de‑identified when no longer needed. Please note that no data transmission or storage can be guaranteed to be 100% secure. The Publisher wants you to feel confident using the Site, but the Publisher cannot ensure or warrant the security of any information you transmit to the Publisher.

7. Access to Personal Information

You have a right to request access to personal information the Publisher holds about you. Where the Publisher holds personal information that you are entitled to access, the Publisher will endeavour to provide you with suitable means of accessing it (e.g. by emailing or mailing it to you). If the Publisher denies access in some circumstances, the Publisher will tell you why. To request access, please contact the Publisher's privacy officer as set out at the end of this document. If you believe that personal information the Publisher holds about you is incorrect, incomplete or inaccurate, then you may request amendment of it. The Publisher will consider if the information requires amendment. If the Publisher does not agree that there are grounds for amendment then the Publisher will add a note to the personal information stating that you disagree with it.

8. Public Information

Any information posted on bulletin boards and/or communicated in chat areas becomes public information. While the Publisher strives to protect and respect your privacy, the Publisher cannot guarantee the security of any information you disclose in a chat room or bulletin board.

9. Cookies

Cookies are data that a Web site transfers to an individual's hard drive for record‑keeping purposes. Cookies can facilitate a user's ongoing access to and use of a site. They allow the Publisher to track usage patterns and to compile data that can help the Publisher improve its content and target advertising. If you do not want information collected through the use of Cookies, there is a simple procedure in most browsers that allows you to deny or accept the Cookie feature. But you should note that Cookies may be necessary to provide you with features such as merchandise transactions or registered services.

10. Online Links to Third Party and Co‑Branded Sites

The Publisher may establish relationships with business partners that allow visitors to the Publisher's web sites to link directly to sites operated by these partners. Some of these sites may be "co‑branded" with the Publisher's logo - however, these sites may not be operated or maintained by or on behalf of the Publisher. These sites may collect personal information from you that may be shared with the Publisher. This Privacy Statement will apply to any personal information the Publisher obtains in this manner. The Publisher is not responsible for the content or practices of web sites operated by third parties that are linked to the Publisher's sites. These links are meant for the user's convenience only. Links to third party sites do not constitute sponsorship, endorsement or approval by the Publisher of the content, policies or practices of those third party sites. Once you have left the Publisher's site via such a link, you should check the applicable privacy policy of the third party site.

11. What else you should know about privacy on the Internet

Remember to close your browser when you have finished your user session. This is to ensure that others cannot access your personal information and correspondence if you share a computer with someone else or are using a computer in a public place like a library or Internet cafe. You as an individual are responsible for the security of and access to your own computer. Whenever you voluntarily disclose personal information over the Internet this information can be collected and used by others. In short, if you post personal information in publicly accessible online forums, you may receive unsolicited messages from other parties in return. Ultimately, you are solely responsible for maintaining the secrecy of your username and passwords and any account information. Please be careful and responsible whenever you are using the Internet. The Publisher does not knowingly collect personal information from children under 13. If the Publisher learns that it has collected any personal information from a child under the age of 13 without verifiable parental consent, the Publisher will delete that information from its database as quickly as possible. If you believe that the Publisher may have collected information from a child under 13, please contact the Publisher at privacy@publishingservicesinternational.im.

12. For further information

Please contact our Privacy Officer to ask for access to your information or if you have a complaint concerning your information privacy or if you would like more information about our approach to privacy at privacy@publishingservicesinternational.im.

13. Changes to the privacy policy

The Publisher reserves the right to update this Privacy Policy at any time to reflect changes in the Publisher's practices and service offerings. The Publisher will use it best endeavours to update the Privacy Policy on the Site, however it does not warrant that it will post these updates immediately.

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