February 19th, 1945:

(AP Photos)

(SOT of war correspondent on scene)

In the final months of World War Two, some 30-thousand U.S. Marines begin landing on Iwo Jima.

That's where they fight a month-long battle to seize the western Pacific island from Japanese forces.

1942:

(AP Photos)

Also during World War Two, President Franklin D. Roosevelt adopts a controversial policy on America's homefront.

He gives the U.S. Military the authority to relocate and detain Japanese-Americans, as well as Japanese nationals living in the U.S.

More than four decades later, the government apologizes for the policy --- and pays money to surviving Japanese-Americans.

1473:

(AP Photos)

Nicolaus Copernicus --- the astronomer who concluded the Sun, not the Earth, is at the center of our solar system --- is born in Poland.

1997:

(AP Photos)

(NAT of somber music on Chinese State TV)

Deng Xiaoping (dung SHOU-ping) ---- last of China's major Communist revolutionaries --- dies in Beijing at age 92.

His rule saw China embrace free-market economic reforms --- and the Tianenmen Square Massacre.

And, 1940:

(AP Photos)

(NAT of "Tears From A Clown")

Singer-songwriter Smokey Robinson --- one of the voices who shaped the "Motown Sound" of the 1960s --- is born in Detroit.

Today in History, February 19th --- ___ ___, The Associated Press.

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SOURCES:

b0422 --- Today in History for February 19th --- 02/12/2007

Britannica:

Japanese internment: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9055918/Nisei

Copernicus: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105759/Nicolaus-Copernicus

Smokey Robinson: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9099188/Smokey-Robinson-and-the-Miracles

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^Today in History<

^By The Associated Press=

Today is Monday, Feb. 19, the 50th day of 2007. There are 315 days left in the year. This is Presidents' Day.

Today's Highlight in History:

On Feb. 19, 1945, during World War II, some 30,000 U.S. Marines began landing on Iwo Jima, where they commenced a month-long battle to seize control of the island from Japanese forces.

On this date:

In 1803, Congress voted to accept Ohio's borders and constitution.

In 1807, former Vice President Aaron Burr, accused of treason, was arrested in the Mississippi Territory, in present-day Alabama. (Burr was acquitted at trial.)

In 1846, the Texas state government was formally installed in Austin, with J. Pinckney Henderson taking the oath of office as governor.

In 1878, Thomas Edison received a U.S. patent for "an improvement in phonograph or speaking machines."

In 1881, Kansas prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.

In 1942, President Roosevelt signed an executive order giving the military the authority to relocate and intern Japanese-Americans as well as Japanese nationals living in the United States.

In 1942, Japanese warplanes, attacking in two waves, raided the Australian city of Darwin; at least 243 people were killed.

In 1959, an agreement was signed by Britain, Turkey and Greece granting Cyprus its independence.

In 1986, the U.S. Senate approved an international treaty outlawing genocide, 37 years after the pact had first been submitted for ratification.

In 1996, baseball showman Charlie O. Finley died in Chicago at age 77.

Ten years ago: Deng Xiaoping, the last of China's major Communist revolutionaries, died. Detroit's daily newspapers accepted a back-to-work offer from employees who'd been on strike for 19 months, but the strikers charged the conditions for return amounted to a lockout.

Five years ago: President Bush opened a two-day visit to South Korea. Peru's justice minister ruled out a presidential pardon for Lori Berenson after the Supreme Court confirmed the American woman's 20-year sentence for aiding leftist rebels. In Salt Lake City, a win by bobsledders Jill Bakken and Vonetta Flowers gave the United States 21 medals in the Winter Games; Flowers became the first black athlete ever to strike gold at the Winter Olympics.

One year ago: A gas explosion in northern Mexico killed 65 miners. Israel halted the transfer of hundreds of millions of dollars in tax money to the Palestinians after Hamas took control of the Palestinian parliament. Jimmie Johnson won the Daytona 500. The East rallied from 21 points down for a 122-120 victory over the West in the NBA All-Star Game.

Today's Birthdays: Singer Smokey Robinson is 67. Singer Bobby Rogers (Smokey Robinson & the Miracles) is 67. Actress Carlin Glynn is 67. Singer Lou Christie is 64. Actor Michael Nader is 62. Rock musician Tony Iommi (Black Sabbath, Heaven and Hell) is 59. Author Amy Tan is 55. Actor Jeff Daniels is 52. Rock singer-musician Dave Wakeling is 51. Talk show host Lorianne Crook is 50. Britain's Prince Andrew is 47. Tennis Hall-of-Famer Hana Mandlikova is 45. Singer Seal is 44. Country musician Ralph McCauley (Wild Horses) is 43. Actress Justine Bateman is 41. Actor Benicio Del Toro is 40. Rock musician Daniel Adair is 32. Pop singer-actress Haylie Duff is 22.

Thought for Today: "I can never give a 'yes' or a 'no.' I don't believe everything in life can be settled by a monosyllable." _ Betty Smith, American author (1904-1972).

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Nisei

Japanese: "second-born"), second-generation Japanese in the United States. During World War II, all persons of Japanese ancestry on the U.S. West Coast were forcibly evacuated from their homes and relocated in inland detention centres as a result of mass hysteria following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941). The U.S. government claimed it was forced by public hysteria, agitation by the press and radio, and military pressure to establish the War Relocation Authority by executive order (March 18, 1942); this agency administered the mass evacuation.

Under the jurisdiction of the Western Defense Command, during the spring and summer of 1942 110,000 Japanese-Americans (including a number who were still aliens) were placed in 10 war relocation centres located in isolated areas from the Sierra Nevada to the Mississippi River. The sparsely furnished military barracks in these camps afforded meagre "work opportunities" for adults and a minimal education for children. By the time the evacuation was complete, U.S. forces were largely in command of the Pacific and all danger of a possible Japanese invasion had passed. After individual screening at the centres to prove their loyalty, 17,600 Nisei were accepted for service in the U.S. armed forces; many of their units were later cited for bravery.

Demands for redress for the losses and injury suffered by the evacuees during the war were met in 1988 when the U.S. government apologized for the internments and passed legislation providing partial monetary payments to the approximately 60,000 surviving Japanese-Americans who had been interned.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

born Feb. 19, 1473, Torun, Pol.

died May 24, 1543, Frauenburg, East Prussia [now Frombork, Pol.]

Polish Mikolaj Kopernik Polish astronomer who proposed that the planets have the Sun as the fixed point to which their motions are to be referred; that the Earth is a planet which, besides orbiting the Sun annually, also turns once daily on its own axis; and that very slow, long-term changes in the direction of this axis account for the precession of the equinoxes. This representation of the heavens is usually called the heliocentric, or "Sun-centred," system-derived from the Greek helios, meaning "Sun." Copernicus's theory had important consequences for later thinkers of the scientific revolution, including such major figures as Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, and Newton. Copernicus probably hit upon his main idea sometime between 1508 and 1514, and during those years he wrote a manuscript usually called the Commentariolus ("Little Commentary"). However, the book that contains the final version of his theory, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium libri vi ("Six Books Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs"), did not appear in print until 1543, the year of his death.

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Smokey Robinson and the Miracles

American vocal group that helped define the Motown sound of the 1960s; led by one of the most gifted, influential singer-songwriters in 20th-century popular music. In addition to Smokey Robinson, byname of William Robinson (b. Feb. 19, 1940, Detroit, Mich., U.S.), the principal members of the group were Warren Moore (b. Nov. 19, 1939, Detroit), Bobby Rogers (b. Feb. 19, 1940, Detroit), Ronnie White (b. April 5, 1939, Detroit), and Claudette Rogers (b. 1942). Whether writing for fellow artists Mary Wells, the Temptations, or Marvin Gaye or performing with the Miracles, singer-lyricist-arranger-producer Robinson created songs that were supremely balanced between the joy and pain of love. At once playful and passionate, Robinson's graceful lyrics led Bob Dylan to call him "America's greatest living poet."