VATICAN CITY (AP) — Benedict XVI always cast himself as the reluctant pope, a shy bookworm who preferred solitary walks in the Alps to the public glare and the majesty of Vatican pageantry. But once in office, he never shied from charting the Catholic Church on the course he thought it needed — a determination reflected in his stunning announcement Monday that he would be the first pope to resign since 1415.

While taking the Vatican and world by surprise, Benedict had laid the groundwork for the decision years ago, saying popes have the obligation to resign if they get too old or sick to carry on. And to many, his decision was perfectly in keeping with a man who had dedicated his life to the church, showing his love for the institution and a courageous acknowledgment that it needed new blood to confront the future.

"This decision, even though it fills us with surprise — and at first glance leaves us with many questions — will be as he said for the good of the church," said Cardinal Angelo Scola, the archbishop of Milan, who is a leading contender to succeed Benedict.

The German theologian, whose mission was to reawaken Christianity in a secularized Europe, grew increasingly frail as he shouldered the monumental task of purging the Catholic world of a sex abuse scandal that festered under John Paul II and exploded during his reign into the church's biggest crisis in decades, if not centuries.

More recently, he bore the painful burden of betrayal by one of his closest aides: Benedict's own butler was convicted by a Vatican court of stealing the pontiff's personal papers and giving them to a journalist, one of the gravest breaches of papal security in modern times.

All the while, Benedict pursued his single-minded vision to rekindle faith in a world which, he frequently lamented, seemed to think it could do without God.

"In vast areas of the world today, there is a strange forgetfulness of God," he told 1 million young people gathered on a vast field for his first foreign trip as pope, World Youth Day in Cologne, Germany in 2005. "It seems as if everything would be just the same even without Him."

With some decisive, often controversial moves, Benedict tried to remind Europe of its Christian heritage and set the Catholic Church on a conservative, tradition-minded path that often alienated progressives and thrilled conservatives.

The Vatican's crackdown on American nuns — accused of straying from church doctrine in pursuing social justice issues rather than stressing core church teaching on abortion and homosexuality — left a bitter taste for many American Catholics.

But conservatives cheered his championing of the pre-Vatican II church and his insistence on tradition, even if it cost the church popularity among liberals.

As he said in his 1996 book "Salt of the Earth," a smaller but purer church may be necessary. "Maybe we are facing a new and different kind of epoch in the church's history, where Christianity will again be characterized more by the mustard seed, where it will exist in small, seemingly insignificant groups that nonetheless live an intensive struggle against evil and bring the good into the world — that let God in," he said then.

Yet his papacy will be forever intertwined with the sex abuse scandal.

Over the course of just a few months in 2010, thousands of people in Europe, Australia, South America and beyond came forward with reports of priests who raped and molested them as children, and bishops who covered up the crimes.

Documents revealed that the Vatican knew well of the problem yet turned a blind eye for decades, at times rebuffing bishops who tried to do the right thing.

Benedict had firsthand knowledge of the scope of the problem since his old office, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith which he had headed since 1982, was responsible for dealing with abuse cases.

He met with victims across the globe, wept with them and prayed with them. He promised that the church must "do everything possible" to ensure such crimes never happen again. The Vatican updated its legal code to extend the statute of limitations for cases and told bishops' conferences around the world to come up with guidelines to prevent abuse.

But Benedict never admitted any personal or Vatican failure. Much to the dismay of victims, he never took action against bishops who ignored or covered up the abuse of their priests or moved known pedophiles to new posts where they abused again.

And hard as he tried to heal the church's wounds, Benedict's message was always clouded by his personal style. No globe-trotting showman or media darling like John Paul, Benedict was a teacher and academic to the core: quiet and pensive with a fierce mind. He spoke in paragraphs, not sound bites. In recent years, his declining health made him seem increasingly fragile and somewhat disengaged in public. And he was notoriously prone to gaffes, though that was perhaps more a fault of his advisers than the pope himself.

Some of Benedict's most lasting initiatives as pope — the actions he will be remembered for — focused on restoring traditional Catholic practice and worship to 21st century Catholicism. It was all in a bid to correct what he considered the erroneous interpretation of the Second Vatican Council, the 1962-65 meetings that brought the Catholic Church into the modern world.

His conservative vision is a direction his successor will likely continue given that the bulk of the College of Cardinals — the princes of the church who will elect the next pope — was hand-picked by Benedict to guarantee his legacy and ensure an orthodox future for the church.

Hans Kueng, a one-time colleague-turned-critic, said he respected Benedict's decision to resign but that he hoped that the pope "will not exert influence on the election of his successor."

In comments to the dpa news agency, Kueng said it would be hard to find someone "who could lead the church out of its many-layered crisis."

Benedict relaxed restrictions on celebrating the old, pre-Vatican II Latin Mass. He reached out to a group of traditionalist, schismatic Catholics in a bid to bring them back into Rome's fold. And he issued an unprecedented invitation to traditionalist Anglicans upset over women priests and gay bishops to join the Roman Catholic Church.

In doing so, he alienated many progressive Catholics who feared he was rolling back the clock on Vatican II. He also angered some Jews who equated the pre-Vatican II church with the time when Jews were still considered ripe for conversion and were held responsible collectively for the death of Christ.

Yet like John Paul, Benedict had made reaching out to Jews a hallmark of his papacy. His first official act as pope was a letter to Rome's Jewish community and he became the second pope in history, after John Paul, to enter a synagogue.

And in his 2011 book "Jesus of Nazareth" Benedict made a sweeping exoneration of the Jewish people for the death of Christ, explaining biblically and theologically why there was no basis in Scripture for the argument that the Jewish people as a whole were responsible for Jesus' death.

"It's very clear Benedict is a true friend of the Jewish people," said Rabbi David Rosen, who heads the interreligious relations office for the American Jewish Committee.

During his trip to Poland, Benedict prayed at the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp — a visit heavy with significance for a German pope on Polish soil.

"In a place like this, words fail; in the end, there can be only a dread silence, a silence which itself is a heartfelt cry to God: Why, Lord, did you remain silent?" he asked.

His 2009 visit to Israel, however, drew a lukewarm response from officials at Jerusalem's national Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial who found Benedict's speech lacking. His call for a Palestinian state also put a damper on the visit.

Jews were also incensed at Benedict's constant promotion toward sainthood of Pope Pius XII, the World War II-era pope accused by some of having failed to sufficiently denounce the Holocaust. And they harshly criticized Benedict when he removed the excommunication of a traditionalist British bishop who had denied the Holocaust.

Benedict's relations with the Muslim world were also a mixed bag.

He riled the Muslim world with a speech in Regensburg, Germany in September 2006, five years after the terror attacks in the United States, in which he quoted a Byzantine emperor who characterized some of the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad as "evil and inhuman," particularly "his command to spread by the sword the faith."

Much of the outrage that ensued from Benedict's interfaith missteps was due to the Holy See's communications problems: The Vatican under Benedict suffered notorious PR hiccups, constantly finding itself slow to react to news and then reacting with muddled messages that required two or three clarifications before getting it straight.

Sometimes Benedict himself was to blame.

In 2009, he enraged the United Nations and several European governments, when en route to Africa, he told reporters that the AIDS problem couldn't be resolved by distributing condoms. "On the contrary, it increases the problem," he said then.

A year later, he issued a revision that seemed to placate liberals while maintaining church teaching opposing contraception: In a book-length interview, he said that if a male prostitute were to use a condom to avoid passing on HIV to his partner, he might be taking a first step toward a more responsible sexuality.

It was a significant shift given the Vatican's repeated position that abstinence and marital fidelity were the only sure ways to stop the virus. Benedict repeated that line and stressed that sex outside marriage was immoral, but his comments nevertheless marked the first time a pope had even acknowledged that condoms had a role to play in stopping HIV.

When he was elected the 265th leader of the Church on April 19, 2005, Benedict, aged 78, was the oldest pope elected in 275 years and the first German one in nearly 1,000 years.

As John Paul's right-hand man, he had been a favorite going into the vote and was selected in the fastest conclave in a century: Just about 24 hours after the voting began, white smoke curled from the Sistine Chapel chimney at 5:50 p.m. to announce "Habemus Papam!"

Though clearly intending to carry on John Paul's legacy, Benedict didn't try to emulate his predecessor's popular acclaim. His foreign trips were short and focused. His Masses were solemn, his homilies dense and professorial.

And he wasn't afraid to challenge John Paul's legacy when he believed his predecessor had erred.

In one remarkable instance, he essentially took over the Legionaries of Christ, a conservative religious order held up as a model of orthodoxy by John Paul after it was revealed that its founder, the Rev. Marciel Maciel, sexually abused seminarians and fathered at least three children.

Under John Paul, who had been a fierce supporter of Maciel, the Vatican's investigation into the Mexican priest had languished. But a year after Benedict became pope, Maciel was sentenced to a lifetime of penance and prayer, and in 2010 the order was essentially put under receivership by the Vatican because of a host of spiritual, financial and other problems.

He wrote three encyclicals, "God is Love" in 2006, "Saved by Hope" in 2007 and "Charity in Truth" in 2009. The latter was perhaps his best known as it called for a new world financial order guided by ethics that was published in the throes of the global financial meltdown.

Benedict's call, however, would strike some as hypocritical when a year later the Holy See's top two banking officials were placed under investigation in a money laundering probe that resulted in the seizure of millions of euros from a Vatican Bank account. The money was later released after Benedict, the Vatican's top legislator, amended the city state's legal code to comply with international norms to fight money laundering and terror financing.

The Vatican's finances though also came under scrutiny when Benedict's own butler, Paolo Gabriele, was arrested in May 2012 and charged with stealing the pope's personal correspondence and leaking the documents to a journalist. Gabriele told Vatican investigators he did so because he thought the pope wasn't being informed of the "evil and corruption" in the Vatican and thought that exposing it publicly would put the church back on the right track. Gabriele was eventually sentenced to 18 months in prison, though Benedict later pardoned him.

As soon as he was elected, Benedict moved decisively on a few selected fronts: He made clear early on that he wanted to re-establish diplomatic relations with China that were severed in 1951. He wrote a landmark letter to the 12 million Chinese faithful in 2007, urging them to unite under Rome's wing. But tensions with the state-backed church remained with several illicit ordinations of Chinese bishops without papal consent.

Within his first year, Benedict also signed off on a long-awaited document barring most gays from the priesthood in a move that riled many in the American church. But in a document welcomed by liberal Catholics, he also essentially abolished "limbo," saying there was hope to think that babies who died without being baptized would go to heaven.

And in one of his most popular acts, he beatified his predecessor in record time, drawing 1.5 million people to Rome in 2011 to witness John Paul move a step closer to sainthood.

Benedict favored Masses heavy in Latin and the brocaded silk vestments of his predecessors. His fondness for Gregorian chant and Mozart — he was an accomplished classical pianist — found its way into papal Masses and concerts performed in his honor, some of the only times the workaholic Benedict was seen relaxing and enjoying himself.

He had a weakness for orange Fanta, small animals and his beloved library; when he was elected pope, he had his entire study moved — as is — from his apartment just outside the Vatican walls into the Apostolic Palace.

"In them are all my advisers," he said of his books in the 2010 book-length interview "Light of the World." ''I know every nook and cranny, and everything has its history."

He fed the goldfish in the pond at the papal summer retreat each day during his vacations, and once, when some lion cubs were brought to an audience at the Vatican, he bent down to pet one — no easy feat for a man of his age.

Years after he had left, colleagues from his days at the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith spoke wistfully, even nostalgically of his tenure setting the course of Catholic doctrine and discipline and presiding over the creation of the monumental "Catechism of the Catholic Church" — a synthesis of key Catholic teaching.

His presentations at monthly department meetings were "magisterial," they said, worthy of the church's permanent teachings. They said he fostered a "family" inside the hallowed yellow halls of the Holy Office, once known as the Inquisition.

"It was not easy to succeed Pope John Paul II, but he managed to fulfill what he had said he would do at the start of his pontificate — be himself," said Maltese Bishop Charles Scicluna, who worked under Benedict at the Congregation as the Vatican's chief sex crimes prosecutor.

Benedict's real family consisted of his brother Georg, also a priest and a frequent summer visitor to Castel Gandolfo. His sister died years previous.

His "papal family" consisted of Monsignor Georg Gaenswein, his longtime private secretary who was always by his side, another secretary and four consecrated women who tended to the papal apartment.

They shared meals, celebrated daily Mass together and at the end of the day watched DVDs, especially of Benedict's favorite show "Don Camillo and Peppone," a black and white comedy from the 1950s about the pastor of a small Italian town and its Communist mayor.

Benedict was born April 16, 1927 in Marktl Am Inn, in Bavaria, but his father, a policeman, moved frequently and the family left when he was 2.

In his memoirs, Benedict dealt what could have been a source of controversy had it been kept secret — that he was enlisted in the Nazi youth movement against his will when he was 14 in 1941, when membership was compulsory. He said he was soon let out because of his studies for the priesthood. Two years later he was drafted into a Nazi anti-aircraft unit as a helper. He deserted the German army in April 1945, the waning days of the war.

He called it prophetic that a German followed a Polish pope — with both men coming from such different sides of World War II.

Benedict was ordained, along with his brother, in 1951. After spending several years teaching theology in Germany, he was appointed bishop of Munich in 1977 and elevated to cardinal three months later by Pope Paul VI.

John Paul named him leader of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in 1981 and he took up his post a year later. Following John Paul's death in 2005, he was elected pope.

If there were any doubts about Benedict's priority to reinvigorate Christianity in Europe, his choice of a papal name was as good as any indication.

Benedict told cardinals soon after he was elected that he hoped to be a pope of peace, like Pope Benedict XV, who reigned during World War I. But the first Benedict — St. Benedict of Norcia — was also an inspiration.

The 5th and 6th century monk is a patron saint of Europe and inspired the creation of the Benedictine order, the main guardian of learning and literature in Western Europe during the dark centuries that followed the fall of the Roman Empire.

___

Follow Nicole Winfield at www.twitter.com/nwinfield

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  1. The Site may feature or display links and pointers to websites operated by third parties on the Site. Such websites do not form part of the Site and are not under the Publisher's control. The Publisher does not accept any responsibility in connection with any such website. If you link to any such websites, you leave the Site entirely at your own risk. The appearance of those links on this site does not indicate any relationship between the Publisher and that third party or any endorsement by the Publisher of that third party, its site or the products or services which it is advertising on this Site. The Site may include third party content which is subject to that third party's terms and conditions of use. Nothing on the Site should be construed as granting any license or right for you to use that content. You must not link to the Site from any other website (or otherwise authorize any other person to link from a third party website to the Site) without the Publisher's prior written consent.

  2. The Site may feature or display third party advertising. By featuring or displaying such advertising, the Publisher does not in any way represent that the Publisher recommends or endorses the relevant advertiser, its products or services. If you contact a third party using functionality provided on the Site, including via e‑mail, the Publisher does not accept any responsibility for any communications or transactions between you and the relevant third party.

  3. From time to time, the Publisher may promote, advertise, or sponsor functions, events, offers, competitions or other activities that may be conducted offline and may be conducted by third parties. These activities may be subject to separate terms and conditions. You participate in any such activities entirely at your own risk. The Publisher does not accept any responsibility in connection with your participation in activities conducted by any third party.

Liability and Idemnity

  1. To the extent permitted by law, you use the Site at your sole risk. The Publisher does not warrant that the Site will be uninterrupted or error‑free. There may be delays, omissions, interruptions, and inaccuracies in the news, information or other Material available through the Site. To the extent permitted by law the Publisher excludes all warranties, representations, conditions and guarantees, whether express, implied or statutory, including, without limitation, those of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the Site or any Materials or goods that are available or sold through the Site. The Publisher does not exclude any statutory or implied warranty, condition or guarantee that it is prohibited by law to exclude under applicable law of any jurisdiction. The Publisher does not make any representations, nor does the Publisher endorse the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other material or database supplied, uploaded or distributed on the Site or available through links on the Site. The Publisher reserves the right to correct any errors or omissions on the Site. Although the Publisher intends to take reasonable steps to prevent the introduction of viruses, worms, ‘trojan horses' or other destructive material to the Site, the Publisher does not guarantee or warrant that the Site or Material that may be downloaded from the Site do not contain such destructive features. To the extent permitted by law, the Publisher is not liable for any loss, damage or harm attributable to such features. If you rely on the Site and any Material available through the Site you do so solely at your own risk. The Publisher does not warrant the accuracy of the Material on the Site, and the Material is provided to you “as is” and on an “as available” basis and on the condition that you undertake all responsibility for assessing the accuracy of the Material and rely on it at your own risk. You recognize that the Site may contain various combinations of text, images, audiovisual productions, opinions, statements, facts, articles, market data, stock quotes or other information created by the Publisher or by third parties. Such Material, including market data, is for your reference only and should not be relied upon by you for tax or investment advice and it does not advocate the purchase or sale of any security or investment.

  2. The Publisher does not necessarily hold the opinions expressed by Material contributors. Opinions and other statements expressed by Users and third parties (e.g., bloggers) are theirs alone, not opinions of the Publisher. Material created by third parties is the sole responsibility of the third parties and its accuracy and completeness are not endorsed or guaranteed. You acknowledge that by providing you with the ability to view and distribute Material through the Site, the Publisher is not undertaking any obligation or liability relating to the Material. The Publisher and its affiliates, successors, assigns, employees, agents, directors, officers and shareholders do not undertake or assume any duty to monitor the Site for inappropriate or unlawful content. To the extent permitted by law, the Publisher and its affiliates, successors, assigns, employees, agents, directors, officers and shareholders assume no responsibility or liability which may arise from the Material thereof, including, but not limited to, claims for defamation, libel, slander, infringement, invasion of privacy and publicity rights, obscenity, pornography, profanity, fraud, or misrepresentation. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Publisher reserves the right to block or remove communications, postings or Materials at any time in its sole discretion.

  3. To the extent permitted by law, the Publisher will have no responsibility or liability in relation to any loss or damage that you incur, including damage to your software or hardware, arising from your use of or access to this Site.

  4. The Publisher does not warrant that functions contained in the Site content, such as hyperlinks, will be uninterrupted or error free, that defects will be corrected or that the Publisher or the server that makes it available, are free of viruses or bugs.

  5. The Publisher may be legally compelled to disclose certain Information. You agree that in the event the Publisher receives a subpoena issued by a court or from a law enforcement or government agency, the Publisher shall comply with such subpoenas without your consent or prior notice to you and may disclose your IP address, username, name, IP location or other information in response thereto.

  6. Subject to clause 30, to the extent permitted by law, the Publisher and its affiliates, and their respective members, directors, officers, managers, employees, shareholders, agents and licensors are not liable for incidental, indirect, consequential, special, punitive, or exemplary loss or damages of any kind, including, without limitation, lost revenues or profits, loss of business, opportunity or goodwill, or loss of data, arising in any way in connection with this Site or Material on the Site, the use of (or inability to use) the Site or Material, or the Conditions, whether in contract, tort (including negligence), in equity, under statue or otherwise, including but not limited to any claim, loss or injury based on errors, omissions, interruptions or other inaccuracies in the Site, or as a result of breach of any warranty or other term or condition of the Conditions. To the extent permitted by law and subject to clause 30, the Publisher's liability shall be limited to the amount you paid, if any, for use of the Site.

  7. You will be responsible for any harm the Publisher suffers as a result of your violation of these Terms and Conditions or any breach by you of your representations and warranties. You agree to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher and its affiliates, and their respective members, directors, officers, managers, employees, shareholders, agents, and licensors, from and against all losses, expenses, damages and costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees, resulting from any violation by you of the Conditions or any breach by you of your representations and warranties thereunder. The Publisher reserves the right to take over the exclusive defense of any claim for which the Publisher is entitled to indemnification under this Section 29. In such event, you shall provide the Publisher with such cooperation as is reasonably requested by the Publisher.

  8. To the extent that the Publisher's liability for breach of any implied or statutory warranty, condition or guarantee, cannot be excluded by law, to the extent permitted by law the Publisher's liability will be limited, at the Publisher's option, to:

    1. in the case of services supplied or offered by the Publisher:

      1. the supply of the services again; or

      2. the payment of the cost of having the services supplied again; and

    2. in the case of goods supplied or offered by the Publisher:

      1. the replacement of the goods or the supply of equivalent goods;

      2. the repair of the goods;

      3. the payment of the cost of having the goods replaced; or

      4. the payment of the cost of having the goods repaired.

  9. If a jurisdiction does not allow the exclusion or limitation of liability in accordance with clause 30 but allows a limitation of a certain maximum extent then liability is limited to that extent.

No reliance, other Users

  1. Except where expressly stated otherwise, Material on the Site is provided as general information only. It is not intended as advice and must not be relied upon as such. You should make your own inquiries and take independent advice tailored to your specific circumstances prior to making any decisions. To the extent permitted by law, the Publisher will not be liable for loss resulting from any action or decision by you in reliance on the Material on the Site.

  2. You acknowledge that the Publisher is not responsible for, and accepts no liability in relation to, any other User's use of, access to or conduct in connection with the Site in any circumstance.

Termination

  1. In the event of termination of your access to the Site you must immediately cease accessing and using the Site and Materials on the Site and (at Publisher's option) return any (hard or electronic) copies of such Materials to the Publisher or destroy any copies within your control or possession. All licences granted by you and all disclaimers, indemnities and exclusion and limitations of liability set out in the Conditions will survive termination.

Severability

  1. If any provision of the Conditions is deemed invalid by a court of competent jurisdiction, the invalidity of such provision shall not affect the validity of the remaining provisions of the Conditions, which shall remain in full force and effect.

No waiver

  1. No waiver of any term of the Conditions shall be deemed a further or continuing waiver of such term or any other term. Any failure to assert any right under the Conditions shall not constitute a waiver of such right.

Affirmation regarding age

  1. By using the Site, you affirm that you are 18 years or over or otherwise possess legal parental or guardian consent.

Applicable Law

  1. These Conditions shall be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the Isle of Man. You consent to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts in the Isle of Man to determine any matter or dispute which arises under the Conditions.

Definitions

  1. In these terms and conditions:

    1. "Material" means text, illustrations, photos, audio, video, or any combination of these or other content, information, data or material.

Publishing Services International Limited Privacy Policy

1. Privacy

The Publisher recognizes the importance of protecting the privacy of its customers. For the purposes of this Privacy Policy, "customers" includes visitors to the Site, subscribers to and users of the Publisher's services, purchasers of its products and advertising customers. This privacy policy is intended to inform you about the personal information that is collected from you when you visit the Site, and in the other circumstances described under the heading "Collection of personal information" below, how this information may be used and disclosed, how you can control the use and disclosure of your information, how your information is protected, and how you can access that information. The Publisher may, from time to time, review and update this Privacy Policy, including taking account of new or amended laws, new technology and/or changes to its operations. This Privacy Policy applies only in respect of the Site. This Privacy Policy does not apply to information collected through any other website (other than by or on behalf of the Publisher in the circumstances described under the heading "Collection of personal information" below) or to the practices of companies that the Publisher does not control. Please note that the Site may contain links to other websites. For example, if you click on an advertisement on the Site and link to another website, then this Privacy Policy will not apply to any information collected on that website. The Publisher is not responsible for the privacy practices of other websites, and the Publisher recommends that you read the privacy policies of each website that you visit. All personal information held by the Publisher will be governed by the most recently updated Privacy Policy.

2. Collection of personal information

The Publisher collects personal information when the Publisher provides its services to you. When you visit and interact with the Site, certain information may be collected automatically, including:

  • your computer's Internet Protocol (IP) address;
  • your browser type and operating system;
  • the web pages you were visiting immediately before and after you came to the Site;
  • activities within community discussions;
  • web pages and advertisements that you view, and links that you click on, within the Site;
  • your bandwidth speed and information about the software programs that are installed on your computer;
  • aggregated data about email click‑through rates and user video viewing;
  • standard server log information; and
  • information collected through HTML cookies, Flash cookies, web beacons, and similar technologies.

The Publisher usually collects personal information directly from you, although sometimes the Publisher may use agents or service providers to do this for the Publisher. The Publisher may also acquire lists from other sources, both from other companies and from other public documents. This may include advertisers, mailing lists, recruitment agencies, contractors and business partners. The Publisher may also access information about you from third‑party sources and platforms (such as social networking sites, databases, online marketing firms, and ad targeting firms), including:

  • if you access third‑party social networking services (such as Facebook Connect or Twitter) through the Site, your username and connection lists for those services;
  • demographic data, such as age range, gender, and interests;
  • advertisement interaction and viewing data, such as ad click‑through rates and information about how many times you viewed a particular ad; and
  • unique identifiers, including mobile device identification numbers, that can identify the physical location of such devices in accordance with applicable law.

Please note that the Site may combine the information that we collect with information that the Publisher may obtain from third‑party sources. The Publisher may collect your personal information when you request or acquire a product or service from the Publisher, register with the Publisher as a member (including user name and password and contact information such as name, email address, postal address, phone number, and mobile number), provide a product or service to the Publisher, complete a survey or questionnaire, enter a competition or event, contribute in a fundraising event, participate in one of the Publisher's services (including blogs, forums, community discussions and other interactive features), search queries conducted on the Site, or when you communicate with the Publisher by e‑mail, telephone, or in writing.

The Publisher usually collects personal information such as your name, address, telephone number, and in some instances, your financial details, including your credit card information, in addition to the other specific types of information described above. The Publisher also collects information about you that is not personal information. For example, the Publisher may collect data relating to your activity on its websites (including IP addresses) via tracking technologies such as cookies, or the Publisher may collect information from you in response to a survey.

As a general rule the Publisher does not collect sensitive information, however it reserves the right to do so. If the Publisher does, it will usually be for the purposes of providing its goods or services and if the law requires the Publisher to, the Publisher will seek your consent to collect it.

If you do not provide the Publisher with information described above, the Publisher may not be able to its services to you.

If, at any time, you provide personal information about someone other than yourself, you warrant that you have that person's consent to provide such information for the purpose specified.

If you are located outside of the Isle of Man, please note that personal information provided by you or otherwise collected as described above will be transferred to the Isle of Man.

3. Use of personal information

The Publisher uses personal information to provide its services (which may include the display of personalised content and advertising) to you, to fulfil administrative functions associated with these services, for example billing, to enter into contracts with you or third parties and for marketing and client relationship purposes. The Publisher also generally uses personal information to report statistics, analyse trends, diagnose problems and target and improve the quality of its products and services. By accessing the Site, you agree that the Publisher may use your personal information for the purposes and by the means described in this Privacy Policy, and you agree that the Publisher may use your mobile number to send you promotions, notifications, or other services. In order to provide readers with free access to content, the Publisher displays advertisements on the Site, many of which are targeted based on information about you. For example, using information collected through cookies, web beacons, and other sources, the Publisher may use demographic data or information about your online activities or interests to display targeted advertising that may be relevant to your preferences. Through this process, advertisers reach Site visitors who are most interested in their products, and you see advertising for products or services in which you may be interested. Third‑party advertisers and advertising platforms also may serve targeted ads on the Site. Please remember that the information practices of third‑party advertisers or platforms collecting data on our Site are not covered by this privacy policy. The Publisher may also use the information that it collects to prevent illegal activities, to enforce the Site's Terms and Conditions, and to otherwise protect its rights and the rights of its users. In addition to the uses identified above, the Publisher may use the information that it collects for any other purposes disclosed to you at the time it collects your information or pursuant to your consent. Where your personal information is contained within an advertisement which the Publisher publishes for you, the Publisher may also use your information for publication of that same advertisement in other media, in accordance with the terms and conditions of the initial publication. The Publisher may also use your personal information to assist the Publisher in improving its products and services and to let you know about goods, services, or promotions which may interest you.

4. Disclosure to and use by Third Parties

The Publisher values your privacy, and shares information about its users only under certain circumstances. The Publisher may share your information with other companies which are related to the Publisher. The Publisher may disclose your information to its service providers and contractors from time to time to help the Publisher to provide and market its goods and services to you. The Publisher may also share your information with third parties who provide prizes for competitions or reader offers. If the Publisher does this, the Publisher generally requires these parties to protect your information in the same way as the Publisher does.

The Publisher will make information about you available to other companies, applications, or people in the circumstances listed below:

  • The Publisher may share aggregated information or information that does not directly identify you with third parties to help the Publisher develop content, services, and advertising that the Publisher hopes you will find of interest. Please note that the Publisher does not share contact information with third parties that advertise on the Site.
  • The Publisher may employ third parties to perform Site‑related services, including database management, maintenance services, analytics, marketing, data processing, and email and text message distribution. These third parties have access to your information only to perform these tasks on the Publisher's behalf.
  • If you choose to engage in public activities on the site, such as posting comments on community message boards, any information you submit can be read, collected, or used by others. Please exercise caution when deciding to disclose any personal information in public activities or submissions.
  • The Publisher may share information about you in the event that the Site is acquired by or merged with another company or a similar corporate transaction takes place. However, the Site will notify you by placing a prominent notice on the Site or sending a notice to the primary email address specified in your account before your information is transferred and becomes subject to a different privacy policy.
  • The Publisher may share information about you to investigate, prevent, or take action regarding illegal activities, suspected fraud, situations involving potential threats to the physical safety or other rights and interests of any person, violations of the Site's Terms and Conditions, or as otherwise required by law.
  • The Publisher may share information about you to respond to subpoenas, search warrants, judicial proceedings, court orders, legal process, or other law enforcement measures, to establish or exercise our legal rights, or to defend against legal claims.
  • In addition to the scenarios identified above, the Publisher may share information about you for any other purposes disclosed to you at the time the Publisher collects your information or pursuant to your consent.

Please note that third parties may independently collect data about you, including your IP address and information about the websites you visit and the links you click, through cookies, clicks on links, or other means when you visit or view ads on the Site.

To customize your experience on the Site and to simplify the Site's registration process, the Publisher provides you with the opportunity to access or interact with third‑party services, such as Facebook and Twitter. When you connect to the Site through these third‑party services, the Publisher may share information about you with these third‑party service providers and they may share data about you with the Publisher. When you allow the Publisher to access your data through a third‑party service to create a Site profile, the Publisher may use this data for several purposes, including:

  • For example, if you connect to the Site via a service with a public friend list, like Twitter, the Publisher may check to see if any people you follow on Twitter are also Site members. If the Publisher finds a match, the Publisher will replicate your Twitter relationship with those members, setting them to be fans, followers, or friends on the Publisher Site.
  • For example, if you connect via a service that has a private contact list (like Google and Yahoo!), the Publisher checks for people in your contacts who are Site members and suggest that you become a fan of these users.
  • When users share content with their friends, the Publisher may use friend lists from third‑party services to create a list of contacts to whom you may choose to send the email message.
  • For example, the Publisher may use friend lists from a third‑party service to create a list of contacts to whom you may choose to send an invitation to view an interactive slideshow.
  • When you are connected via a third‑party service, the Publisher may access certain account information, such as your profile picture, what stories are popular in your network, and what your friends are saying about certain articles or blog posts, in order to enhance and personalize your experience on the Site.

In addition, if you connect to a Facebook account, your experience on the Site may be personalized. For example, you may automatically see what stories are popular in your network, and what your friends are saying about particular stories. Please note that you may disconnect third party accounts at any time.

Please remember that the Publisher does not control the privacy practices of these third‑party services. The Publisher encourages you to read the privacy policies of all third‑party service providers. You can deactivate your account at any time by visiting the preferences page for your profile. When you deactivate your account, your user profile will be disabled, but your public comments will remain on the site. The Site has no responsibility to take down, remove, or edit any of your public activities or any submissions that are a result of your public activities. If you opt out of these technologies, you will continue to see advertising displayed on the Site, but the advertising may not be targeted to your interests. Please remember that the Publisher does not have access to, or control over, advertisers' or service providers' cookies, and the information practices of third parties are not covered by this privacy policy.

5. Use of Aggregate Data

The Publisher may collect and use certain non‑personal information (e.g., the identity of your Internet browser, the type of operating system you use, your IP address and the domain name of your Internet service provider) to optimise its goods and services (which may include the display of personalised content and advertising) including the Publisher's web pages for your computer. The Publisher may use personally identifiable information in aggregate form to improve its goods and services including its web sites and make them more responsive to the needs of its customers. This statistical compilation and analysis of information may also be used by the Publisher or provided to others as a summary report for marketing, advertising or research purposes.

6. Security

The Publisher strives to ensure the security, integrity and privacy of personal information of its customers. The Publisher may hold your information in either electronic or hard copy form. The Publisher uses a variety of physical and electronic security measures including restricting physical access to its offices and firewalls and secure databases to keep personal information secure from misuse, loss or unauthorized use or disclosure. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the Internet can be guaranteed to be totally secure. The Publisher limits access to contact information about you to employees or service providers who the Publisher believes reasonably need to come into contact with that information to provide products or services to you or in order to do their jobs, and subject to section 4 of this Privacy Policy. The Publisher also has adopted commercially reasonable technical, physical, and administrative procedures to help protect information about you from loss, misuse, and alteration. Personal information is destroyed or de‑identified when no longer needed. Please note that no data transmission or storage can be guaranteed to be 100% secure. The Publisher wants you to feel confident using the Site, but the Publisher cannot ensure or warrant the security of any information you transmit to the Publisher.

7. Access to Personal Information

You have a right to request access to personal information the Publisher holds about you. Where the Publisher holds personal information that you are entitled to access, the Publisher will endeavour to provide you with suitable means of accessing it (e.g. by emailing or mailing it to you). If the Publisher denies access in some circumstances, the Publisher will tell you why. To request access, please contact the Publisher's privacy officer as set out at the end of this document. If you believe that personal information the Publisher holds about you is incorrect, incomplete or inaccurate, then you may request amendment of it. The Publisher will consider if the information requires amendment. If the Publisher does not agree that there are grounds for amendment then the Publisher will add a note to the personal information stating that you disagree with it.

8. Public Information

Any information posted on bulletin boards and/or communicated in chat areas becomes public information. While the Publisher strives to protect and respect your privacy, the Publisher cannot guarantee the security of any information you disclose in a chat room or bulletin board.

9. Cookies

Cookies are data that a Web site transfers to an individual's hard drive for record‑keeping purposes. Cookies can facilitate a user's ongoing access to and use of a site. They allow the Publisher to track usage patterns and to compile data that can help the Publisher improve its content and target advertising. If you do not want information collected through the use of Cookies, there is a simple procedure in most browsers that allows you to deny or accept the Cookie feature. But you should note that Cookies may be necessary to provide you with features such as merchandise transactions or registered services.

10. Online Links to Third Party and Co‑Branded Sites

The Publisher may establish relationships with business partners that allow visitors to the Publisher's web sites to link directly to sites operated by these partners. Some of these sites may be "co‑branded" with the Publisher's logo - however, these sites may not be operated or maintained by or on behalf of the Publisher. These sites may collect personal information from you that may be shared with the Publisher. This Privacy Statement will apply to any personal information the Publisher obtains in this manner. The Publisher is not responsible for the content or practices of web sites operated by third parties that are linked to the Publisher's sites. These links are meant for the user's convenience only. Links to third party sites do not constitute sponsorship, endorsement or approval by the Publisher of the content, policies or practices of those third party sites. Once you have left the Publisher's site via such a link, you should check the applicable privacy policy of the third party site.

11. What else you should know about privacy on the Internet

Remember to close your browser when you have finished your user session. This is to ensure that others cannot access your personal information and correspondence if you share a computer with someone else or are using a computer in a public place like a library or Internet cafe. You as an individual are responsible for the security of and access to your own computer. Whenever you voluntarily disclose personal information over the Internet this information can be collected and used by others. In short, if you post personal information in publicly accessible online forums, you may receive unsolicited messages from other parties in return. Ultimately, you are solely responsible for maintaining the secrecy of your username and passwords and any account information. Please be careful and responsible whenever you are using the Internet. The Publisher does not knowingly collect personal information from children under 13. If the Publisher learns that it has collected any personal information from a child under the age of 13 without verifiable parental consent, the Publisher will delete that information from its database as quickly as possible. If you believe that the Publisher may have collected information from a child under 13, please contact the Publisher at privacy@publishingservicesinternational.im.

12. For further information

Please contact our Privacy Officer to ask for access to your information or if you have a complaint concerning your information privacy or if you would like more information about our approach to privacy at privacy@publishingservicesinternational.im.

13. Changes to the privacy policy

The Publisher reserves the right to update this Privacy Policy at any time to reflect changes in the Publisher's practices and service offerings. The Publisher will use it best endeavours to update the Privacy Policy on the Site, however it does not warrant that it will post these updates immediately.

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