The federal and state governments are embroiled in a dispute over who is to blame for hospital bed closures and cuts to surgery in Victoria's public health system.
Ms Plibersek and Mr Davis met for an hour at Melbourne Airport and the talks ended with both sides refusing to give ground on their positions.
"I'm particularly disappointed that the federal minister would not engage with the substance of may of the key issues that we face in Victoria," Mr Davis said.
Ms Plibersek says Victoria is missing the opportunity to get much-needed funding immediately.
"I've got hundreds of millions of dollars outstanding that is available to the Victorian Government and they haven't actually collected that money yet," she said.
Mr Davis said he would have another meeting with Ms Plibersek "in coming days."
The Australian Nursing Federation (ANF) has warned the disagreements is putting lives at risk.
The ANF says a Commonwealth funding adjustment of $107 million comes on top of the Baillieu Government's $616 million cut.
Spokeswoman Lisa Fitzpatrick says it is time to end the blame game and come up with a compromise.
"I do think it's becoming an emergency situation in Victoria," she said.
"We have really unprecedented cancellations of surgery.
"We already had waiting lists that had already blown out under this Government. To have further waiting list growth, it does put lives in danger."